STEVE ELLS

Q&A: Planning Ahead for Cooling a Larger Cabin During Another Hot Summer

January 2016

Hi Steve,

I’d like some ideas for cooling off the cabin of my airplane because I don’t want to again go through anything like last summer. I live in the Southwestern United States, and as you know, the temperatures can top 100 degrees here during the heat of the summer.

My airplane is hangared and while the cabin is not scalding when I get in it, it doesn’t take long once I move it out of the hangar before some surfaces in the cabin are too hot to touch.

My wife and I fly a 1972 Cessna 310Q around the western half of the U.S. most of the time. We don’t load it heavily; usually it’s just the two of us, “prop-setting” around to visit our grandkids that live in California, Wyoming and Texas.

We are both experienced pilots and are very comfortable with the little hassles of using an oxygen system in our unpressurized twin. So we cruise in the mid-teen altitudes where the air is cold.

We are looking for an easy-to-use solution to cool off the cabin of the airplane prior to launch, during taxi and during climb. Give me some solutions.

 

—Tommy the Twin Driver

Dear Tommy,

I can sympathize with you. I well remember wishing I had a way to beat the heat during a cross-country flight in September to attend a Club Pilotos de Mexico get-together at the Hacienda de los Santos resort in Alamos, Mexico. (A very memorable trip to a wonderful resort.)

But back to your request for a solution to mitigating a hot cabin. There are permanently installed vapor cycle systems and portable icebox systems.

There are two different types of vapor cycle systems. Electrically-driven systems use power from the aircraft electrical system (i.e., alternator and battery) or from ground power to drive the compressor and airflow fans.

One advantage of this type of system is that they can be powered up using ground power to cool the cabin prior to engine start. The second advantage is there are no restrictions on system usage. Systems that drive the compressor off the engine need to be shut down during takeoff and landing since a small portion of engine power is used to drive the compressor.

The disadvantage of electrical systems is that they require a great deal of amperage—45 to 70 amps and a 28 volt electrical system—to function. None of the retrofit systems are eligible for installation in airplanes with 12 volt electrical systems.

The second type of system uses engine power to drive the compressor through a belt tensioning system. This system draws only a small electrical load—enough to power the distribution fans and control circuitry—but as was mentioned earlier, this system must be turned off during takeoff and landing operations.

Aircenter Inc of Chattanooga, Tenn. sells a Cool Air system for your 310. This electrically-driven system is installed aft of the rear cabin bulkhead. According to Gary Gadberry at Aircenter, the Cool Air system adds 55 pounds to the aircraft empty weight.

The system draws 70 amps during maximum cooling and somewhat less during other operating modes. This means that 100 amp alternators will need to be installed on both engines if they aren’t already installed.

In addition to a bit of airframe modification to accommodate fresh air and evaporator ducting, some additional wiring will need to be installed. Gadberry estimates that the installation takes 100 man-hours to complete.

Aircenter offers a flat rate installation of $6,000 at its Chattanooga service center. The cost of the STC approved kit for the 310 is $18,000. Total cost when completed at the Aircenter facility is $24,000.

Cool Air air-conditioning kits are also available for 28 volt Cessna singles and twins including the 172R; 182RG; T206H; 210 L, M and N; 310s and the Cessna 303.

Air Comm Corp of Denver and Addison, Tex. also markets a number of STC approved air-conditioning systems for single and twin engine Cessnas. Air Comm sells STC’d air-conditioning systems for 28 volt Cessna 172s, 182s and 206s, and for the 340/340A and 414/414A twins. (Air Comm Corp. purchased Keith Air Conditioning.)

Kelly Aerospace markets its electrically-driven Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems (KATS) ThermaCool systems for installation on 28 volt Cessna 172s, 182s and 206s. KATS is the supplier for Cessna factory installed air-conditioning systems.

According to Jeff Barlett at Kelly Thermal systems, the ThermaCool systems weigh approximately 48 pounds and draw approximately 40 amps at 28 volts during operation.

KATS ThermaCool also holds approval to install a second 28 volt, 95 amp alternator as an option. This is a standby installation; either alternator can be selected to supply power, but not both at the same time.

As you can see, while air-conditioning is offered by three companies, the number of aftermarket options for your 310 is limited to the system from Aircenter Inc. Neither Air Comm nor KATS offers a system for your 310.

Installing that FAA approved air-conditioning system from Aircenter will cost you the price of the system, 55 pounds of useful load and the use of your airplane for approximately one month during the installation of the system—but you’ll gain a much more comfortable cabin environment prior to start, during ground operations and during your climb to altitude.

If you’re not ready to take that step, there is a much more basic but effective low cost solution available.

The IcyBreeze portable air conditioner can be filled with two quarts of water, and the rest with ice. Cold water is drawn up into the heat exchanger while fresh air is pulled into the top and across the heat exchanger, cooling the air by up to 35 degrees.

The cooled air arrives through a vent, or it can be directed using a stay-put flexible hose. All units have a three-speed fan and either a rechargeable battery and/or 12 volt or 110 volt power supply (or all three). Amp draw for units running on ship power are specified at 1.5 low, 2.5 medium, 2.9 high.

The empty weight of the IcyBreeze Chill is 21 pounds; fully loaded with ice, it will add 51 pounds to your airplane. Cost for a Chill 12V unit (no rechargeable battery) is $249. The top-of-the-line Whiteout lists for $425 and comes with several accessories including a custom NiMH battery pack and smart charger, 12 volt power supply, 110 volt power supply, wired remote and a four-foot extension tube. Several other packages are available.

Arctic Air of Cordele, Ga. sells ice coolers that can be used in airplanes with either 12 or 24 volt (when used with a $140 24-to-12 volt converter, available from Arctic Air) electrical systems.

Arctic Air units come in three sizes: 30 quart, 38 quart and 52 quart; with one or two output fans; using 12 volt or 24 volt power; and with one or two louvered or ducted outlets.

The 38 quart size has an empty weight is 18 pounds. The 52 quart unit can weigh up to 67 pounds when full of ice.

 

 

Users report that these units work well even in airplanes with a large cabin such as your 310. Prior to use the unit is filled with either block, crushed or cubed ice, put in the cabin either on the rear seat or in the baggage area, tied down and powered up.

Depending on the temperature and the type of ice, cold air is available from 1.5 to three hours.

Arctic Air units are attractive and well insulated, feature two speed settings and are relatively inexpensive. Prices range from $495 for a 12 volt, 30 quart, single-fan unit with a flexible duct, up to $650 for a 52 quart, 24 volt, dual-fan unit with dual louvers.

One option on the Artic Air website is a $90 battery pack. The battery pack is used to cool the cabin—such as during preflight—without using aircraft power.

Sporty’s Pilot Shop sells all sizes of the Arctic Air ice units, and Sporty’s website includes short product demonstration videos showing sizes and features.

Artic Air also sells portable vapor cycle 12 and 24 volt air-conditioning units that can be used in aircraft. Prices start at $4,600, and more information is available at the Arctic Air website.

 

Happy flying. 

 

Know your FAR/AIM and check with your mechanic before starting any work. 

Steve Ells has been an A&P/IA for 43 years and is a commercial pilot with instrument and multi-engine ratings. Ells also loves utility and bush-style airplanes and operations. He’s a former tech rep and editor for Cessna Pilots Association and served as associate editor for AOPA Pilot until 2008. Ells is the owner of Ells Aviation (EllsAviation.com) and lives in Templeton, Calif. with his wife Audrey. Send questions and comments to .

 

Resources

Club Pilotos’ Fall Reunion 2016
Club Pilotos de Mexico
clubpilotos.com

 

Hacienda de los Santos
haciendadelossantos.com
 

 

Air-conditioning systems
Aircenter, Inc.
aircenterinc.com
 

 

Air Comm Corp.
aircommcorp.com

 

Arctic Air
arcticaircooler.com

 

Arctic Air product demos
sportys.com/pilotshop
(type “Arctic Air” into the search engine to view products and videos)


IcyBreeze
icybreeze.com

 

Kelly Aerospace
kellyaerospace.com
 

Inspection Tips for the Cessna 182

Inspection Tips for the Cessna 182

Steve Ells, A&P/IA and Cessna expert, has decades of experience working on Cessna single-engine aircraft. Here he lists the common problems and areas of concern on Cessna 182s for the third in our four-part series focusing on Cessna Skylanes.

 

The Cessna 182 is a tough, dependable airplane—but like all machines, there are areas that are problematic or components that should be improved or upgraded.

 Cessna Aircraft has developed a series of inspection guidelines for its 182 series airplanes. Those guidelines are titled “Continuing Airworthiness Program (CAP) Structural Inspections” and are available in SEL-05-01R1. 

 Cessna has also developed a list of inspections for its Supplemental Structural Inspection (SID) Program. The SID for the 1969-76 Cessna 182 is 208 pages long; it’s detailed. 

 Cessna’s CAP and SID programs focus on corrosion and metal fatigue cracking. Both of these programs along with Service Bulletin (SB) information and Service Kits (SKs) are available online. There’s a sign-in required but once you’re signed in, access is free.

 I’ve woven together hints from the manufacturer’s documents and from my personal experience to create a general inspection list. It’s focused on Continental-powered 182s built between 1962 and 1986, but should prove helpful to any owners of 182s produced before and after these dates as well. 

 NOTE: Some of the inspections described in this article can be carried out by an owner, but you’ll need your trusty mechanic by your side for others. 

Visual inspection

The first step in any aircraft assessment is a very detailed visual inspection.

 Stand back and look to see if the wingtips are the same distance from the floor and that the tips of the horizontal stabilizers are equidistant from the floor. A couple of inches at the wingtips is acceptable, provided the floor is flat and the tires are equally inflated. More than a couple of inches’ difference is a sign to investigate further. 

 A cheap tool that can be used to detect gross airframe problems is a piece of string. Compare the distance from the outboard trailing edge of the left aileron to the leading edge of the left horizontal stabilizer to the same measurement on the right side of the airplane. They better be pretty close. 

 Look for skin wrinkling. Compare the appearance of the top wing skins on the left wing with the skins on the right wing.

 Check for skin distortion in the boot cowl skins aft of the firewall—skin distortion here is caused by a nosewheel hard landing. If you see any wrinkling, look for a bent firewall and bending of the tunnel parts aft of the firewall.

 Check for evidence of a new leading-edge wing skin and/or skin distortion above the rear window near the inner end of the flap—you’re looking for evidence of a wing strike. The wing may be repaired (or changed) and look okay, but the fuselage damage hasn’t been repaired.

 Check for fuel leak stains at the fuselage above the door—fuel stains here indicate a leaking fuel bladder—and check for a fuel smell when the tanks are topped off. Both are signals that it’s time to change the fuel bladder.

 Check to determine if the inner end of each aileron is level (i.e., married) with the outer end of the flap when the control wheel is level—this is a preliminary check for proper rigging. Don’t be concerned if the outer end of the aileron doesn’t match the trailing edge of the wingtip.

 This visual once-over is meant to give you an initial impression and can be used for any 182. Don’t be misled by shiny paint—you’re hoping to see a straight, no-damage airframe. 

 

AFT END OF THE AIRFRAME 

209 and 230 bulkheads

Let’s start looking closer at common problem areas with the airframe from back to front.

 The 209 and 230 bulkheads (209 and 230 inches aft of the datum) form the aft-most end of the fuselage. They are the mounting points for the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical stabilizer. The 230 bulkhead also provides a strong point for the aft fuselage tiedown. 

 Inspect for cracks around the upper left and upper right cutouts in the 209 bulkhead. If no cracks are found, it’s a good idea to break any sharp edges of the cutouts with a file and Scotch-Brite to reduce the possibility of cracking. 

 If cracks are found, bulkhead reinforcement kit SK182-46A is needed for repairs. Price is over $7,000.

 AD 72-07-09 mandates a check for loose bolts and cracks in the aft spar of the vertical stabilizer every 1,000 hours. Inspect for cracks in the forward fin spar using a dye penetrant method. This inspection should also be conducted on the aircraft after severe winds or a gusts encounter.

 Elevator torque flange rivet upgrade and outboard elevator rib strengthening

 Facing the front of the airplane, grab the trailing edges of the left elevator with the left hand and the trailing edge of the right elevator with the right hand.

 Push with one hand and resist movement with the other hand. Look and feel for movement between the two sides.

 If movement is found, the elevators must be removed and new, larger rivets installed in the flange-to-torque tube connection.

 SEB03-1 provides information on adding additional rivets to each elevator outboard rib.

 

Rudder/elevator interference

Move the elevator to the full up position while pushing the rudder to its left and right limits of travel. The rudder and elevator should not touch. If they do, check the travel and adjust the stops as necessary. 

 Let’s now go to the front of the airframe and under the cowling.

 

FRONT OF AIRFRAME AND UNDER COWLING

Spinner wear

Look for black aluminum oxide on the inner surface of the spinner, and for wear at the point where the spinner’s inner surface contacts the plastic forward spinner support bulkhead. 

 If wear is detected, make sure the wear is not more than 10 percent of the metal thickness. 

 If the spinner is airworthy, shim the bulkhead until the spinner-to-bulkhead screw holes are half-a-hole out of alignment; then use an awl to pull the spinner and bulkhead holes into alignment before starting screws. Pre-loading the bulkhead in this way prevents wear. 

 

Cowl snubber-engine induction balance tube wear

On earlier 182s, the engine cowlings were secured to the forward portion of the fuselage with cam lock-type fasteners. In 1973, Cessna introduced the “floating” cowling.

 A floating cowling is suspended on rubber shock mounts that are support mounted on the firewall. The idea was to prevent engine vibration from being transmitted to the passenger compartment. In order for the floating cowling system to work, all of the cowling shock mounts must be meticulously maintained.

 There’s also a rubber bumper installed at the front of the cowling to prevent the cowling from contacting the engine induction balance tube. This front rubber bumper is often missing.

 Cessna Service News Letter SNL87-28 applies.

 

Cowl flap hinge pin wear

Cowl flap hinges wear, especially the one that’s directly aft of the exhaust downpipe. 

 Hinge wear is easy to check: grab the flap and try to wiggle it. (We once got a 182 into the shop that didn’t have a right cowl flap anymore—it had fallen off in flight.) Cessna wants over $3,500 for a new cowl flap; a used serviceable one costs about $1,000.

 If the hinge is worn, it must be replaced. The street price for a new Cessna hinge is around $285. 

 Horsham Aviation Services in Australia has an STC kit to replace the hinged cowl flaps with a fixed flap, thereby eliminating the hinge wear problem. Tony Horsham said to mention you heard about the kit in Cessna Flyer and he will sell it to you at the 2015 price of $700 Australian dollars plus shipping.

 SE71-27-R1 suggests that loose rivets in the hinges can be replaced with 5/32-inch diameter rivets.

 

Lower forward bulkhead and wing strut fitting inspection

SEB95-19 and SID 53-12-02 detail the procedures to inspect the lower forward fuselage/wing strut fitting for cracks. I have seen an airplane with extensive intergranular corrosion in this area.

 

SEB95-19 and SID 53-12-02 detail the procedures to inspect the lower forward fuselage/wing strut fitting for cracks, and the author has seen an airplane with extensive intergranular corrosion in this area. The image above shows a very corroded forward door post/wing strut mount.

SK182-115 contains a reinforcement kit for the lower forward bulkhead and wing strut fitting. The kit sells for around $2,500 date of publication. (Updated pricing for 2021/2022: Cessna $7,500, Hutch Aviation Inc. $4,095.00. See resources for contact information. -Ed.)

 

Engine ground strap

The must be a ground strap between the engine and the engine mount. This is usually a woven wire flat strap with lugs on each end. I’ve seen this left off after an engine change.

 

Alternator support bracket AD and service kit

AD 79-25-07 requires the installation of an additional ground strap or the installation of an improved alternator mounting leg. SE79-58S1 and Service Kits SK182-52D and SK182-55A apply.

 

Firewall damage inspection

It’s not uncommon for a 182 to be landed nosewheel first—especially when there’s no baggage in the baggage compartment and heavy passengers in the pilot and copilot seats—and when it does, firewall, boot cowl and behind-firewall damage result.

 In mid-1970, starting with serial number 60291, Cessna beefed up the firewall with hat-section straps that run from the upper engine mounts down to the lower firewall.

 Service Bulletin SE71-5 provided information on a firewall reinforcement kit, SK182-44C, for 1961 through 1970 model 182s. 

 Carburetor air intake seal AD and flange/clip/duct inspection

AD 77-04-05 mandates a visual inspection of the rubber seals on the flange of the flexible duct where it clips to the carburetor air box. This old AD is often missed; SE76-18 applies.

 Above is an extreme example of a neglected engine inlet air duct and mounting.

 

The condition of the flexible duct/flange/clips are often ignored. This results in abnormal carb air box wear and an increased likelihood of dirt ingestion into the engine.

 

Engine oil filter adapter AD

Cessna developed a screw-in oil filter adapter to replace the screw-in oil screen.

 AD 96-12-22 was issued, calling for an inspection for thread damage of the adapters. Thread damage occurred because the lock nut wasn’t torqued to the value called out in the installation instructions. (Read the AD closely; the screw-in oil filter adapters from Teledyne Continental Motors are NOT included in the AD.)

 If the threads are deemed good after the inspection, reinstall the adapter and torque the lock nut to 50 to 60 foot-pounds. Mark the position of the adapter, housing and nut with torque putty.

 Every time the oil filter is changed, inspect the torque putty for evidence of movement of the parts. The owner can sign off the continuing inspection part of the AD.

 A new oil filter adapter kit from Cessna is sold as SK210-160-2. The retail cost is around $1,800.

 Cessna bulletins SEB98-08 and SEB93-01R1 apply.

 

Engine mount rust

The engine mount must be inspected for rust. There should be heat shields (Cessna p/n 0750121) in place to deflect the heat.

Engine mount inspection.

 

The original Cessna heat shields weren’t overly durable, and McFarlane Aviation and other vendors have improved shields.

 If rust is found, it must be stopped and the area treated with high-temperature paint. As a general rule when 10 percent of the thickness of the tube is damaged by rust, the mount must be removed for refurbishment or replacement.

 

Induction air filter ADs

AD 84-26-02 requires that paper-type induction air filters be retired after 500 hours time in service.

 Foam-type, replaceable-media induction air filters from Brackett are subject to three ADs. They are 81-15-03, 96-09-06, and 2002-26-03. 

 

Engine baffles and baffle seals’ condition

Sheet metal baffles, intercylinder baffles and flexible baffle seals comprise the cooling system for your engine.

 Unfortunately, not every little part and piece of the baffle system gets reinstalled after an engine change. Look for cracks, missing pieces, and flexible baffle seals that are in poor condition.

 A very small tab located behind and inboard of the oil cooler (part number 0750152-1 or -3) is often missing.

 

Exhaust heat exchanger baffles

The 182 might have what looks like a muffler, but in reality it’s a heat exchanger designed to provide carburetor heat and exhaust pipe-heated air to the cabin.

 Using a strong flashlight, look up the downpipe for the condition of the internal cones.

 These cones must be in good shape; no waviness or missing pieces are permitted. If one of the cone parts falls out of position and blocks the downpipe, a serious power reduction will occur.

 

LANDING GEAR

McCauley wheels

Cessna installed McCauley wheels and brakes on many C-182s. Cessna Service Bulletin SE 74-8 notified owners that existing McCauley wheel and brake assemblies could be replaced with Cleveland wheels and brakes.

 SEB00-5-R03 and Service Kit 182-120D are the current bulletins and kits for the Cleveland wheel and brake change. I would check to see if you can find a good serviceable set of wheels/brakes from a salvage yard.

 Loose or worn nose strut torque links/bushings/bolts

Nosewheel shimmy is caused by an out-of-balance nosewheel/tire assembly or a deteriorated or worn nose tire. The effects can be lessened if the nosegear torque links, shims, bushings, bolts, and shimmy damper are in tip-top, no-slop condition.

 Make absolutely sure the correct bolts and parts are used. Cessna service information is in SEB82-37R1.

 

Flat landing gear leg corrosion limits

The flat landing main landing gear legs were surface shot-peened which resulted in a thin, tough surface layer.

 If the leg is permitted to rust through the shot-peened layer, the gear leg strength is severely compromised. We’ve seen broken gear legs.

 Inspect for rust at the leg support structure and at the step. 

 

Landing gear leg U-clamps

I like to jack up a 182—the procedure is in the service manual—to determine if there’s any fore and aft and up-and-down play in the landing gear legs.

Prior to 1961, the main gear legs were secured with steel U-shaped clamps. These do break.

 

PASSENGER PROTECTION

Seatbelt/shoulder harness

I’m going to pound on this pulpit until my fingers are worn to the bone. Install shoulder harnesses. Cessna has kits: SK182-101B.

 B.A.S. sells four-point inertia reel kits; Alpha Aviation sells a variety of three-point fixed and inertia reel kits and Wag-Aero sells PMA approved kits (both three-bar slide and Y-style shoulder harnesses).

 

Seat rails AD and seat clips/rollers inspection 

AD 87-20-03R1 and SE83-06 call for repetitive inspections of the seat rails for wear, hole elongation, and security.

 AD 2011-10-09 and SEB11-4-R01 add inspections to the existing AD. The AD requires “requires repetitive inspections and replacement of parts, if necessary, of the seat rail and seat rail holes; seat pin engagement; seat rollers, washers, and axle bolts or bushings; wall thickness of roller housing and the tang; and lock pin springs.”

 This is a no-joke serious AD. The seat rails and all seat attach components and hardware, must be inspected and replaced if wear is found.

 The best source of seat track inspection tools, rails, and seat parts is McFarlane Aviation.

 

Secondary seat stops

In order to prevent seat movement during maneuvers and during takeoffs, Cessna stressed the need for secondary seat stops in 182s. Cessna has been printing service information related to secondary seat stops for over 25 years. Here are some you need to be aware of:

  •  SEB10-07, SEB10-1 and Service kits SK195-11, -12, -13, 14, SK210-174B and SK210-175B, -177, -178 and SK337-77 and -78 are current.
  •  SEB07-5-R05 also addresses secondary seat stop installations.
  • SEB07-08 calls for the inspection of certain (505590-401) secondary seat stop reel assemblies.
  •  SEB89-02R2 and SK172-94D and SK172-102A

Secondary seat stops are cheap insurance. Have you installed a secondary seat stop system? 

Metal-to-metal seatbelts and PMA identification tags

NL81-06 Part 91 revision requires all seatbelts to have metal-to-metal ends and all seatbelts must have visible and readable PMA identification tags. 

 

INTERIOR ITEMS

Copilot’s brake linkage/fuel line clearance

I’ve seen 182s where the linkage attached to the forward end of the copilot’s left brake pedal rubs against the aluminum fuel line just aft of the firewall.

Inspect and if necessary, gently bend the fuel line to provide clearance.

 

Rudder pedal bearing blocks and support structure

Cessna used aluminum bearing blocks to support the steel rudder pedal tubes under the rudder pedals. These blocks, due to moisture from the pilot’s shoes and contact with the steel tubes, are prone to deterioration due to corrosion.

 New bearing blocks have the same part number but are constructed of high-impact plastic.

 The support structure under the bearing blocks is often cracked and deformed. Look closely with a mirror.

 While you’re down there with your mirror and flashlight, take a look at the following items, too.

 

Brake master cylinder attach brackets

The left brake master cylinder lower support brackets (p/n 0411549 and 0411550) were originally made of aluminum. It’s very common for these small brackets to be bent and deformed. New ones (same part number) are steel.

 

Cabin skin panel corrosion inspection and repair

Beginning in the 1970s until the end of 1986, Cessna glued vibration dampening material (lead vinyl) on the inner skin panels. Unfortunately, the glue used was hygroscopic and held moisture against the skin panels.

 Moisture is the most common electrolyte in aluminum corrosion and the result is localized corrosion. In some cases, the corrosion has eaten completely through the aluminum skins.

 Remove the fuselage interior side panels and look for loose dampening panels. SNL 93-03 has more details.

 

Airframe corrosion overhead and behind wing root headliner

Since Cessna didn’t apply any primer or paint to the interior of 182 airframes until it restarted production in 1998, airframe corrosion is common in older Cessnas.

Unzip the headliner and look for corrosion. This expanse of bare metal is one of the first places to corrode and is a good gauge for determining the extent of airframe corrosion.

 If the corrosion in the overhead is serious, it’s a sign that an extensive inspection must be conducted. Look for corrosion in the wing roots where the steel wire in flexible cabin air ducting hoses contacts aluminum parts.

 Look closely at the forward and aft wing mount fittings, and at the wing strut/forward door bulkhead fittings under the floor.

 

Aileron control cables 

Inspect the left and right aileron direct cables (the ones from the yokes to the aileron bellcranks), especially at the point where the cables are re-routed 90 degrees over pulleys just aft of the firewall and at the bottom and top of the left and right forward door frames. There’s some evidence that a broken aileron cable caused a fatal accident. 

Disconnect the cable at the aileron bellcrank, and after the 90-degree bend section of the cable is pulled off the pulley, run a rag over the section that has been on the pulley. If the cable has any broken strands, it needs to be replaced.

 McFarlane sells replacement cable kits.

 

Ignition switch inspection and AD

AD 76-07-12 calls for repetitive checks on Bendix ignition switches to test whether the switches completely ground out the magnetos when turned to the off position.

 AD 93-05-06 applies to ignition switches made by ACS. It calls for disassembly and lubrication of certain switches and the installation of a diode on the starter solenoid.

 SEB92-29 calls for a check to see if the key can be removed when the switch is between “R” and “Off” positions. Replace the switch if the key can be removed.

 

FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel caps

182s with bladder-type fuel tanks (1956 through 1978 182Q) need to have leakproof fuel caps installed. The original flush-type fuel caps seemed like a good idea but due to corrosion of the sealing surface of the collar and lack of maintenance on the sealing O-rings, these caps eventually act more like water funnels than fuel caps.

 

Cessna issued a large number of service information related to fuel caps for both the bladder and the integral fuel tank airplanes including:

SE77-06R2 Vented fuel caps

AD79-10-14R1 Install vented caps 

SE80-59 and SE80-59S1 and SK182-65 Sealing of flush-type fuel caps

SE82-34 and SK182-65 Flush fuel caps seal testing procedure

SEB92-27 and SK182-86C Reduced diameter caps for integral tanks

SEB92-27 Reduced diameter vented fuel cap

 

I strongly recommend that aftermarket Monarch fuel caps be installed—unless the small red-tabbed Cessna caps with the raised sealing lip are already installed.

 

Fuel bladder AD and inspection

In 1984 AD 84-10-01 was issued; it was later revised. The current AD is 84-10-01R1. This AD was written because there was a series of engine power interruptions soon after takeoff in fuel bladder-equipped Cessnas.

Instead of addressing the cause of the problem—leaking fuel caps—the AD required owners to determine if there were diagonal wrinkles in the bottom surface of the bladders. Water, let in by the leaking caps, would “hide” behind the wrinkles while the tanks were being sumped.

The owner, thinking his tanks were full of good fuel, would take off. When the water jumped over the wrinkle it would be ingested by the engine causing a power loss.

The AD instructed owners that found wrinkles to drain the tanks to determine if the fluid behind the wrinkle was greater than three fluid ounces.

If more than three ounces were found, the AD required that a placard be placed on the panel calling for a procedure where the tail was lowered to within five inches of the ground and the wings moved up and down (a total of 10 inches up and 10 inches down, at least 12 times; the famous “rock and roll” preflight procedure) until no more water was being sumped out of the tank.

The AD mandated a modification to the fuel tank sump drain valve on each tank. The details of this procedure are in SE 84-09R2; modification kits SK206-24 and -25 sell for around $800 each.

The AD also required the installation of small diameter raised-lip fuel caps (SK182-85B) or an alternate method of compliance. The Monarch-style caps mentioned above are the best solution.

 

Wing tank fuel vent inspection

SEB99-05 provides a procedure to check if the fuel system vent check valve is operating correctly.

 

Uneven fuel feeding and wing vent tube position

It’s common for 182 pilots to complain that the fuel doesn’t feed evenly from the left and right tanks when the selector is in the “both” position. This is due to the single-vent system on the aircraft—a single tube is mounted behind the upper end of the left wing strut.

This vent delivers slightly pressurized ram air to the outboard end of the left tank. This pressure usually pushes fuel through the vent interconnect tube to the right tank.

Only after enough fuel is used to expose the vent openings (at the forward upper inboard end of each tank) will the air pressure on the surface of the fuel in both tanks be the same.

Cessna Service information SE81-08 addresses venting adjustments. Service manuals also call out the precise placement of the under-wing vent tube.

 

ADDITONAL AIRFRAME ITEMS

Flap support arm wear inspection

SEB95-03 calls for the inspection of the flap support arm (tracks) for wear and for the installation of thin washers to prevent wear. Cessna service kit SK180-44 contains parts.

 McFarlane Aviation sells flap roller parts kits.

 

Aileron balance weight AD and hinge pin AD and inspection

AD83-22-06 requires a one-time inspection of the aileron hinge pins; SE83-18 is the Cessna Service Bulletin for this inspection.

There have been reports of loose aileron balance weights. Check the heads of the rivets securing these weights.

 

Elevator trim tab actuator and hinge inspection

The service manual provides a maximum travel of the trailing edge of the elevator trim tab of ¼ of an inch. The most common causes of excess travel are worn hinges and/or worn bolts in the linkage from the actuator.

 This list of items covers most of the critical items on the Cessna 182 airframe that require inspection, attention, and sometimes, replacement. As mentioned at the beginning of this article, this list focuses on 1962 to 1986 Cessna Skylane airframes. 

 

Know your FAR/AIM and check with your mechanic before starting any work.

 

Steve Ells has been an A&P/IA for 44 years and is a commercial pilot with instrument and multi-engine ratings. Ells also loves utility and bush-style airplanes and operations. He’s a former tech rep and editor for Cessna Pilots Association and served as associate editor for AOPA Pilot until 2008. Ells is the owner of Ells Aviation (EllsAviation.com) and lives in Templeton, Calif. with his wife Audrey. Send questions and comments to editor

 

Resources

Further reading

Continuing Airworthiness Program (CAP) and Supplemental Structural Inspection (SID) 

Seat track inspection tools, rails, and seat parts – CFA supporter

McFarlane Aviation Products

Replacement seatbelt/harnesses – CFA supporters

Alpha Aviation, Inc.
 
B.A.S. Inc.
 
Wag-Aero
  

Aftermarket fuel caps

Monarch Premium Cap System
by Hartwig Aircraft Fuel Cell Repair
 
182 Cowl Flap Modification Kit
Horsham Aviation Services
 
Other
Hutch Aviation
hutchaviation.com
936-897-1012/936-579-4342

 

From the November 2016 Cessna Flyer magazine

Flying the Cessna 182

Flying the Cessna 182

Former 182 owner and longtime A&P/IA Steve Ells offers many practical suggestions for operating a Cessna Skylane in this last “leg” of his four-part series on the 182.

“The pilot is no more than the manager of this tool and its champion. The pilot is the inspiration for flight and the airplane is the vehicle.” —Richard Coffey,  “The Skylane Pilots Companion”

The Cessna 182 is a damn fine airplane. I owned N777LJ, a 1966 Cessna 182J, for about four years. 

While the recommendations in this article may vary (at times, widely) from those written in both the engine and airframe manufacturer’s manual and handbooks, I wrote them based on my own experiences, the experiences of other very seasoned pilots and owner-operators, the writings of Richard Coffey in “The Skylane Pilots Companion” and John Schwaner in “Sky Ranch Engineering Manual,” the research of trained specialists, and suggestions from experienced C-182 owner and pilot Mike Jesch.

Weight and balance

Although 182s have wide CG envelopes and can carry a pretty good load, they all tend to be nose-heavy. Always be aware of the possibility of an out-of-limits forward CG, especially after any engine upgrade and when taking off with full fuel and big folks in the front seats. 

In early models (before 1965), it was not uncommon to run out of up elevator power in the flare for landing; this resulted in touching down nosewheel first, which, if rough enough, would result in a bent firewall. In 1965, Cessna extended the horizontal stabilizer and elevator span by 10 inches.

I, being a mechanic and a man that believes “if you have it with you, it won’t be needed,” always tied down my 60-pound toolbox in the baggage compartment, especially when I was flying by myself. 

I never ran out of elevator, and was always comforted by having my tools available—although I can’t remember ever needing them during my 182 time. 

Preflight

It’s wise to create an airplane-specific checklist that better reflects the equipment installed on your airplane. For instance, if aftermarket speed brakes have been installed, a pre-takeoff operational check is not on the Cessna checklist in the owner’s manual or POH. 

Every engine has a “sweet spot” oil level. After some experimentation, I found that the sweet spot for oil was nine quarts in the Continental O-470-R engine in my 182. Any more than that would blow out of the engine breather tube and end up on the belly of the airplane. 

I was very wary of water egress into the bladder-type fuel tanks of my 1966 182. In my opinion, every bladder-equipped Cessna 182 owner must take every step possible to prevent water from entering the fuel tanks. This means replacing the original flush-style fuel caps with either the small Cessna raised flange two-tab caps, or the Monarch-style caps.

If you suspect that water may have gotten into the bladder, don’t hesitate to do what’s commonly known as the “rock-and-roll” preflight. This procedure is detailed in AD 84-10-01R1 and calls for the pilot to lower the tail to within five inches of the ground and move one wing or the other up 10 inches and then down 10 inches a minimum of 12 times. 

This technique is supposed to cause any water to flow to the wing sump drain valve. Drain the sumps before you raise the tail. You’ll need to recruit some help.  (More about Monarch fuel caps and the rock-and-roll procedure can be found in part three of Ells’ series published in the November 2016 issue. —Ed.)

During walkaround, grab the trailing edge of each cowl flap and try to wiggle it. You don’t want much back-and-forth movement since this indicates a worn flap hinge. New cowl flaps are very expensive; cowl flap hinges, not so much. 

In 1965, Cessna extended the horizontal stabilizer and elevator span of the 182 by 10 inches.
Always lean on the ground—idling with a rich mixture is the quickest way to foul spark plugs.

           Cessna Skylane

Although 182s have wide CG envelopes and can carry a pretty good load, they all tend to be nose-heavy. Always be aware of the possibility of an out-of-limits forward CG, especially after any engine upgrade and when taking off with full fuel and big folks in the front seats.
Engine management

First off, treat your engine with care. Change the oil at 25- to 35-hour intervals or every four months, whichever comes first. Install a full flow oil filter and change the filter at every oil change. 

It’s been proven that fine wire spark plugs do save a little money in the long run and are more resistant to lead fouling, so if you can afford them, use them. 

An all-cylinder engine monitor is a valuable tool that aids management tasks: when setting power, when leaning, and during engine troubleshooting and problem diagnoses. 

Learn how many primer shots and what amount of throttle it takes to get your big Continental or Lycoming to come to life… gently! Just about the worst thing you can do for either of these two engines is to start them with a power setting that results in the engine roaring; gentle starts are key.

After start, set the power to get 1,000 rpm. That speed will allow for a gradual warm up and get the oil splashing around inside the engine.

After the engine stabilizes, reach over and pull your mixture control out to lean the engine. Pilots who learn to limit excess fuel will reduce the buildup of combustion chamber lead deposits, save fuel and won’t induce rapid combustion chamber temperature changes. 

Partially burned fuel that is pushed past the compression rings into the engine case is one of the causes of sludge and carbon formation.  

Always lean on the ground—idling with a rich mixture is the quickest way to foul spark plugs. That’s because the lead scavenging additive in 100LL is only active at higher combustion temperatures (900° F or higher). Since the additive doesn’t work at lower temperatures, leaning is the only way to reduce lead fouling at lower power settings. 

Continental bulletins advise preheating an engine that has been exposed to air temperatures of 20° F (-6.6° C) or lower. (See Continental service information letter SIL03-1 for more information. —Ed.) 

Lycoming service instruction SI 1505 says preheating is required at temperatures below 10° F (–12° C) except for -76 engines, where the low limits are 20° F (–6.6° C). 

Many pilots believe both of these temperatures are too low, so my advice is to start preheating whenever temperatures drop below 40° F (4.4° C). Preheating reduces wear. As engines age, preheating becomes more important to reduce engine stresses during start.

Pay particular attention to the engine during the first start of the day. If there’s any hiccupping, or if one or more cylinders are slow to pick and start firing, it’s time to check for a sticky exhaust valve. 

A slightly sticking valve needs to be looked at immediately, since a valve that sticks in flight will create a very noisy (read: expensive) and potentially dangerous situation. Sticking valves occur more often in Lycoming engines than Continentals. 

Wait until the oil temperature gets to 100° F (38° C) before doing your pre-takeoff “mag check” runup. It’s perfectly okay to do the mag check with the mixture leaned—you can’t hurt the engine. If it’s too lean, the engine will slowly lose power; just push the mixture in slightly and continue the checks detailed on the checklist. 

There should be an rpm drop-off for each magneto; if there’s no drop-off, it means the magneto is not being grounded during the test and that the mag is “hot” at all times. Do not pull it through by hand if you suspect it’s hot. 

During the propeller governor check, don’t let the rpm drop down more than 100 rpm. This test is to determine if the governor works; a couple of 100 rpm drops is all that’s needed. Do three or four of these small drop tests if the oil is cold.

Takeoff

Please don’t jam the throttle to the firewall at the start of your takeoff run—especially if you’re taking off from a long runway. Cylinder cooling airflow is very slight below 40 mph. It’s good practice to advance the throttle to mag check rpm after brake release, do a final check on engine parameters and, if every indication is in the green, gradually add full power. 

Sometime during the full-power run on the runway or soon after takeoff, look to see where the needle on the dial of the EGT gauge is (or, if you have an engine monitor, what temperature is showing on one of your six cylinders). Make a note about the needle position and/or EGT temp and which cylinder the number is from. 

That needle position or temperature on that same cylinder is your target when leaning before takeoff at a high altitude airport. Once you get used to what it takes to lean to that number, you’ll be able to set the proper takeoff mixture during high altitude takeoffs without the need to conduct a high rpm run up prior to takeoff.

Don’t do partial-throttle takeoffs. The carburetor and fuel injection systems in 182s are designed to provide extra fuel flow while at full throttle to provide cooling and prevent detonation during high power operations.

All of the engines installed in all Cessna 182 models are approved for continuous full power operations. There are no engine operating limitations except for temperature and pressure limits. However, Cessna manuals suggest that power be reduced to approximately 75 percent, 23 inches and 2,400 rpm during cruise climb. Use the power setting you need to fly safely.

Mike Jesch, who flies heavies for a 

living, flies the heck out of his P. Ponk-engine 182. He likes to set 10 degrees of flap for takeoff. He explains that “the rotation and lift off just feel better and more natural to me.” 

Cessna Skylane 

Cruise 

Unless noise is a concern, there’s no reason to reduce power soon after takeoff. Most of the noise comes from the propeller so if you need to reduce noise to be a good neighbor, reduce the rpm. 

Check temperatures during climb. Although the engine manufacturers cite very high limits for CHTs (500° F for Lycoming; 460° F for Continental), it can be wise to set 400° F as an upper limit. My recommendation of 400° F is based on research that shows the aluminum used in cylinder heads begins to degrade at temperatures over 400. As I remember, these effects are cumulative.

Tools to reduce and control CHTs are: (1) reduce the angle of climb to increase airflow over the cylinders; (2) open the cowl flaps and (3) and richen the mixture. 

Once at cruise altitude, there are a couple of tricks used by Continental-engine 182 pilots that have proven to better atomize the fuel in the induction system and better mix it with the airflow. This lessens the spread between the leanest and the richest mixtures across all six cylinders as indicated by EGTs. 

The first trick is to add a bit of carburetor heat. Since my 182 came equipped with a carburetor air temperature (CAT) gauge, I pulled the carb heat knob aft until the gauge read 50° F (10° C). 

Jesch, who flies a 182 with an O-470-50 engine modified by P. Ponk, sets his carb heat to 45° F. 

The second trick for the Continental crowd is to pull the throttle aft enough to get it off the full-in position; not enough to reduce manifold pressure (MAP), but enough to make it “twitch” a little bit. This cocks the throttle butterfly and creates a turbulent airflow upstream of the main discharge fuel nozzle, which also aids in fuel/air mixture mixing and distribution. 

Jesch, who flew us to AirVenture and back in 2016, uses a very simple power management plan. The throttle is left wide open (except for the twitch) and rpm is adjusted to the top of the green band. Using this scheme and the two tricks outlined above, he can successfully lean to 11 gph in cruise at 65 percent power. 

Lycoming-powered 182s are all fuel-injected, so these tricks are not applicable. GAMIjectors will reduce the differential between fuels flows across each cylinder. This will let Lycoming owners take full advantage of lean-of-peak mixture settings, if desired. 

According to the manufacturer’s printed bulletins, Continental engines can be leaned to peak EGT at 65 percent power and below; Lycomings at 75 percent power and below. 

Cessna Skylane 

Descent and landing

Cessna owner’s manuals and POHs advise pilots to adjust the mixture as needed during descent and to move the mixture control to full rich prior to landing. In my experience, there’s no reason to adjust any control except the throttle during descent. 

As the power is reduced, the prop governor will continue to control prop rpm until the throttle is almost full aft and the manifold pressure is quite low. 

The governor reduces blade pitch to maintain rpm until the blades are in the high rpm position and rest against the low pitch stop in the prop hub. 

This is the correct time to move the prop control to the high rpm position to prepare for final approach, touchdown and a possible go-around. 

This practice lessens noise since the prop is not “revved up” under power, nor do the passengers feel the rpm surge that’s part of pushing the prop control full forward while under power. 

Pushing the mixture to the full rich position prior to let down is not necessary. You’ve set the mixture for cruise power and as you reduce power, the amount of fuel needed for combustion will go down. 

Pushing the mixture forward will dump unneeded fuel into the mixture and cause a rapid change in internal cylinder temperatures. 

Jesch doesn’t like to use full flaps (i.e., 40 degrees) for landing, explaining that it lowers the pitch attitude a bit, and all that extra drag “kind of makes the airframe shake a bit.” He uses 20 degrees for landing. 

The key to spot landings in a 182 is speed control on final. Jesch uses 65 kias. The suggested final approach speed is 1.3 Vso. Most pilots land too fast. 

Go-around

A second reason to get in the habit of landing with 20 degrees of flaps is because it reduces the number of tasks required to transition from a landing configuration to power-up-and-go settings. 

182s can climb with 40 degrees of flaps, but a 20-degree setting presents sensations and sights that are much closer to a normal takeoff. The last thing anyone needs during a go-around is a new set of sight pictures and performance anomalies. 

The only time you again need full-rich mixture between cruise and touchdown is if you suddenly have to go around. If an airplane unexpectedly pulls onto the runway when you’re on short final, there will be time to advance the mixture and throttle.

Taxiing and refueling

Once on the ground and off the runway, open the cowl flaps, raise the flaps and lean the mixture. By reducing the amount of fuel flowing through the engine on the ground, you’re doing all you can do to reduce lead accumulation on the pistons and exhaust valves. 

Move the fuel selector valve to “left” or “right” when fueling and whenever you park for the night on a ramp, stop for a $100 hamburger or make any other short trip away from the airplane. This simple step prevents fuel from crossfeeding from one tank to the other through the “both” setting on fuel selector valve. 

These are only some of the 182-specific flying tips and tricks. Please take the time to share your favorite 182 flying tip, so we can pass it on to other Cessna Flyer readers. (Visit the forums at CessnaFlyer.org or email your favorite 182 tip to . —Ed.)

Finally, I recommend that every Cessna 182 pilot and owner read “The Skylane Pilots Companion” by Richard Coffey. New copies are no longer available but it is available online, and Coffey has given his permission for its free distribution. 

These recommendations are for information only. When attempting new procedures, consider taking along a safety pilot or CFI. 

Steve Ells has been an A&P/IA for 44 years and is a commercial pilot with instrument and multi-engine ratings. Ells also loves utility and bush-style airplanes and operations. He’s a former tech rep and editor for Cessna Pilots Association and served as associate editor for AOPA Pilot until 2008. Ells is the owner of Ells Aviation (EllsAviation.com) and lives in Templeton, Calif. with his wife Audrey. Send questions and comments to .

Resources

Further reading (e-books)

“The Skylane Pilots Companion” by Richard A. Coffey 
 
“Sky Ranch Engineering Manual” by John Schwaner

Cold weather ops – manufacturer information

Continental Service Information Letter SIL 03-1
“Cold Weather Operation – Engine Preheating”
 
Lycoming Service Instruction No. 1505 “Cold Weather Starting”

Engine STCs

P. Ponk Aviation – CFA supporter
 
GAMIjector fuel injectors
General Aviation Modifications, Inc.
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